Manuscrisele ramase de la Hipocrate / The manuscripts of Hippocrates

Din vechime pana astazi, valoarea inestimabila a manuscriselor lui Hipocrate poate fi considerata nepretuita, si pe buna dreptate. Hipocrate a fost primul medic in adevaratul sens al cuvantului care a creat o legatura intre medicina traditionala si filosofia morala. In vremea aceea, bolile, in special epidemiile, erau puse pe seama zeilor. Marea sa reusita a fost sa aseze medicina pe fundamentul gandirii rationale, ceea ce i-a adus dupa ani renumele de „parintele medicinei”. 

Hipocrate a sustinut inca de la inceput ideea alimentatiei sanatoase ca factor determinant al sanatatii fizice individuale. Tocmai de aceea, el a pus pe primul plan protejarea mediului, punand bazele unei farmacii naturiste si evitand pe cat posibil sa le administreze medicamente pacientilor sai, cu exceptia cazurilor in care acestea erau singura solutie. In conceptia lui, natura avea la baza patru elemente (pamant, apa, foc si aer). El a mers mai departe cu aceasta teorie, sustinand ca pana si corpul uman avea in componenta sa patru umori (lichide): sange, flegma, bila galbena si neagra. Cand aceste patru umori se gasesc in echilibru, in organism, persoana respectiva este sanatoasa. Cand nu, persoana este pe punctul de a se imbolnavi. Hipocrate a ramas faimos pentru descrierea progresului unei boli, pana in ziua de astazi: exista un moment cand boala ajunge la un stadiu critic, care nu poate avea decat doua urmari, acestea fiind ori ameliorarea simptomelor (vindecare), ori inrautatirea starii pacientului, care va duce treptat la moarte. Tot el a introdus pentru prima data in literatura de specialitate o serie de termeni care se folosesc si in zilele noastre: exaltare, recidiva, paroxism, punct culminant, recuperare etc. 

De vreme ce abordarea lui era una orientata catre individ, nu una generala, tratamentele sale presupuneau recomandari specifice si aplicabile doar pentru pacientul in cauza. Fiecare boala se manifesta diferit si fiecare corp reactioneaza diferit la ea. Totodata, factorul psihologic juca un rol extrem de important in stabilirea unui diagnostic. In privinta epidemiilor, Hipocrate sustinea ca acestea erau cauzate de apa infestata, mizerie, sobolani si pacienti care luau contact cu comunitatea sanatoasa. 

Referitor la lucrarile sale, renumitul medic punea mare pret pe documentarea stiintifica. Metodologia sa avea la baza observarea clinica a pacientului, experienta si discurs rational. Scoala de medicina din Cos, care ii poarta numele, nu avea ca obiect principal stabilirea unui diagnostic, ci prevenirea bolii in sine. De la sine inteles, „parintele medicinei” recurgea deseori la metode neobisnuite de tratament. Sa nu uitam nici de „Juramantul lui Hipocrate”, care sta si in zilele noastra la baza practicarii medicinei. Hipocrate avea convingerea ca medicina este strans legata de etica. Principial, era de neconceput ca cineva sa apeleze la cunostintele sale de medicina pentru cazuri de eutanasiere ori avort, sau pentru orice alte situatii care ar putea atrage castiguri personale. Intotdeauna aveau intaietate persoanele carora chiar le pasa de soarta celorlalti. 

Toate cele de mai sus stau marturie ca manuscrisele ramase de la Hipocrate sunt de mare pret si de un real folos chiar si in zilele noastre, rezistand in fata timpului, gratie eforturilor sustinute ale calugarilor de-a lungul secolelor. Dat fiind ca mare parte din vechile manuscrise nu aveau o structura evidenta, calugarii au fost nevoiti sa faca o impartire pe capitole – in concordanta cu continutul fiecarui fragment – pentru a le face mai usor de citit si catalogat. Multe dintre manastirile din Sfantul Munte Athos pastreaza adevarate tezaure cu variate lucrari din vechile scrieri grecesti. La Manastirea Marea Lavra sa gasesc astfel de manuscrise pretioase (4 manuscrise ale lui Galen, 069, 070, 071 si 072; 2 manuscrise ale lui Hipocrate, „Aforismele” 068 si 069; 3 manuscrise rare ale lui Aetius Amidinou, 063, 064, 065; „Ierburile„ lui Discoride – un compendiu ilustrat din lumea botanicii, de referinta). 

Ducand mai departe mostenirea lasata noua de catre precursori, imbratisam un mod de viata sanatos si virtuos, si salutam starea de bine a trupului si a sufletului. 

 

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The value of the Hippocrates manuscripts, from ancient times to the present times, can be described only by the word priceless. He was the first doctor who linked the medicine to moral philosophy, differentiating them simultaneously. The superstitions of his time wanted the diseases, particularly the pandemics, caused by the gods. So he based medicine on rational thinking and took the designation "father of rational medicine". 

Hippocrates recognized the importance of a healthy diet for maintaining the good physical condition of man. Therefore, it paid particular attention to protecting the environment, invest in a pharmacy of nature, and avoided giving drugs to patients, when it was not absolutely necessary. He argued that everything was created of four elements (earth, water, fire, air). He considered that even the human body consists of four juices (i.e Liquids): blood, sputum, yellow and black bile. When these four juices are in a proper balance, the person is healthy, if not the person gets ill. His demarcation concerning the stages of a disease has been kept until today: the disease at some point reaches a critical stage, which determines the outcome, which will either cure (lysis), or will gradually lead to death. He also has set some intermediate states such as elation, relapse, paroxysm, peak, recovery etc., and this terminology is used also in modern science. In the treatment he applied medical pathways particularly focused on the patient, since the intervention was individualized. Every disease manifests differently in each treatment and every separate body reacts differently to it. Also the psychological factor considered as a topic of highest importance and at the same time, an equivalent of adequate rest of the organization. Regarding epidemics he insisted that they have been caused by contaminated water, dirt, mice and patients who come in contact with healthy population. Concerning the works of Hippocrates, he always tried to make sure that everything he wrote was documented scientifically. His methodology was based on clinical observation, experience and rationality. The Hippocratic school of Cos, was not focused on the diagnosis of a disease, but on prognosis. So he often applied innovative treatment methods. It is also noteworthy that the Hippocratic Oath, which until today, every doctor give in order to practice medicine. Hippocrates believed that medicine was connected directly with the ethics of the doctor. It was forbidden to give medicine for euthanasia or abortion or for any other purpose for personal gain and he transmitted his knowledge to anyone who really cared. 

From all that elements it becomes evident the importance and usefulness of the Hippocrates manuscripts, many of which have survived until today, thanks to persistent and lengthy efforts of the monks over the centuries. Because most of the ancient texts have no headings, monks have to write them a later - always according to their content – in order to make the classification easier. In many monasteries of Mount Athos preserved varied works of ancient Greek literature. Various medical manuscripts are located in the monastery of Great Lavra (4 manuscripts of Galen O69, O70, O71 and O72, 2 manuscripts Hippocrates 'Aphorisms' O68 and O69, 3 rare manuscripts Aetius Amidinou - Staff Justinian doctor, O63, O64 and O65 , the "Herbal" of Dioscorides - dream project each pharmacist and herbalist, illustrated with indelible thumbnails). Grounded in these recordings, we continue until today the hard but beneficial path for healthy and virtuous way of life, which leads to both physical and mental wellbeing.

 


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